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April 8, 2010



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Color plate from Ernst Haeckel‘s Kunstformen der Natur
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Distribution range of family Orchidaceae

Orchidaceae, the Orchid family, is the largest family of the flowering plants (Angiospermae).[1][2] Its name is derived from the genus Orchis.

The WCSP or World Checklist of Selected Plant Families[3] list 880 genera and 26,049 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as many as 30,000). The number of orchid species equals about four times the number of mammal species, or more than twice the number of bird species. It also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants.[4] About 800 new orchid species are described each year. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species). The family also includes the Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants like some Phalaenopsis or Cattleya.

Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

The complex mechanisms which orchids evolve to achieve cross-pollination were investigated by Charles Darwin and described in his 1862 book Fertilisation of Orchids.



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The name comes from the Greek “órkhis”, literally meaning “testicle”, because its root has a similar shape. [5][6]. The term was introduced in 1845 by John Lindley in “School Botanty”[6].


Orchidaceae are cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat apart from deserts and glaciers. The great majority are to be found in the tropics, mostly Asia, South America and Central America, but they are also found above the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia and even on Macquarie Island, close to Antarctica.

The following list gives a rough overview of their distribution:

  • tropical America: 250 to 270 genera
  • tropical Asia: 260 to 300 genera
  • tropical Africa: 230 to 270 genera
  • Oceania: 50 to 70 genera
  • Europe and temperate Asia: 40 to 60 genera
  • North America: 20 to 26 genera

[edit] Taxonomy

This family is totally recognised, and the APG II system of 2003 places it in the order Asparagales.

The taxonomy of this family is in constant flux, as new studies continue to identify more classificatory elements.

Five subfamilies are now recognised. The cladogram has been made according to the APG system:

Apostasioideae: 2 genera and 16 species, south-western Asia
Cypripedioideae: 5 genera and 130 species, from the temperate regions of the world, as well as tropical America and tropical Asia
Vanilloideae: 15 genera and 180 species, humid tropical and subtropical regions, eastern North America
Epidendroideae: more than 500 genera and more or less 20,000 species, cosmopolitan
Orchidoideae: 208 genera and 3,630 species, cosmopolitan


A majority of orchids are perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics. Other species are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky soil, or are terrestrial. Nearly all temperate orchids are terrestrial.

Some orchids, like Neottia and Corallorhiza, lack chlorophyll and are unable to photosynthesize. Instead, these species obtain energy and nutrients by parasitising soil fungi through the formation of orchid mycorrhizas. The fungi involved include those that form ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites such as Armillaria, and saprotrophs.[7] These orchids are known as myco-heterotrophs, but were formerly (incorrectly) described as saprophytes due to the belief that they gained their nutrition by breaking down organic matter. While only a few species are achlorophyllous holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination and seedling growth and even photosynthetic adult plants may continue to obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.


Orchids are easily distinguished, as they share some very evident apomorphies. Among these: bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic), many resupinate, one petal (labellum) is always highly modified, stamens and carpels are fused, and the seeds are extremely small.


A close-up of an phalaenopsis orchid leaf; the parallel veins and cuticle are visible.

Like most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have a reticulate venation. Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size. Their characteristics are often diagnostic. They are normally alternate on the stem, often plicate, and have no stipules. Orchid leaves often have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous.

The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminas are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade species, on the other hand, have long, thin leaves.

The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is they live for several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves, shed them annually and develop new leaves together with new pseudobulbs, as in Catasetum.

The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental. The leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or lithophyte, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background. The cordate leaves of Psychopsiella limminghei are light brownish green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower pigments. The attractive mottle of the leaves of Lady’s Slippers from tropical and subtropical Asia, (Paphiopedilum) is caused by uneven distribution of chlorophyll. Also Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green. The Jewel Orchid (Ludisia discolor) is grown more for its colorful leaves than its fairly inconspicuous white flowers.

Some orchids, as Dendrophylax lindenii (Ghost Orchid), Aphyllorchis and Taeniophyllum depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophic species.

Stem and roots

All orchids are perennial herbs and lack any permanent woody structure. Orchids can grow according to two patterns:

  • Monopodial: The stems grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla.
  • Sympodial: The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing, to be then replaced. Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support. The growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called ‘eye’, an undeveloped bud, thereby branching.

Anacamptis lactea showing the two tubers

Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers. The root caps of terrestrials are smooth and white.

Some sympodial terrestrials, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops.

In warm and humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs.

Epiphytic orchids have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis called velamen has the function to absorb humidity. It is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells. These structures are named tilosomes.

The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support. Nutrients mainly come from animal droppings and other organic detritus on their supporting surface.

The pseudobulb of Prosthechea fragrans

The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form what is called a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods.

The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves and can have different shapes, often conical or oblong. Its size is very variable; in some small species of Bulbophyllum it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world, Grammatophyllum speciosum (giant orchid), it can reach three meters. Some Dendrobium have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length, some other orchids have hidden or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves.

With ageing the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At this stage it is often called a backbulb. A pseudobulb then takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which eventually dies off too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five years.


Dactylorhiza sambucina, Orchidoideae for reference

Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers.

Some orchids have single flowers but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers. The flowering stem can be basal, that is produced from the base of the tuber, like in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.

As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like Mormodes, Ludisia, Macodes this kind of symmetry may be difficult to notice.

The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots has two whorls of sterile elements. The outer whorl has three sepals and the inner whorl has three petals. The sepals are usually very similar to the petals (and thus called tepals, 1), but may be completely distinct.

The upper medial petal, called the labellum or lip (6),, is always modified and enlarged. The inferior ovary (7) or the pedicel usually rotates 180 degrees, so that the labellum, goes on the lower part of the flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators. This characteristic, called resupination occurs primitively in the family and is considered apomorphic (the torsion of the ovary is very evident from the picture). Some orchids have secondarily lost this resupination, e. g. Zygopetalum and Epidendrum secundum.

The normal form of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they form a triangle. In Paphiopedilum (Venus slippers) the lower two sepals are fused together into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of a slipper. In Masdevallia all the sepals are fused.

Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called peloric. Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is environmentally influenced and may appear random.

Longitudinal section of a flower of Vanilla planifolia

Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus Neuwiedia. Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a staminode. All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria, retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes (4). The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column (2). In the primitive Apostasioideae this fusion is only partial, in the Vanilloideae it is more deep, while in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae it is total. The stigma (9) is very asymmetrical as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lay on the bottom of the column.

Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. In the other subfamilies, that comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther (3), carries and two pollinia.

A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic stands and mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, like in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria or a stipe, like in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators.

At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, there is the rostellum (5), a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism.

As aforementioned, the ovary is always inferior (located behind the flower). It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely, three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae).


Orchids have developed highly specialized pollination systems and thus the chances of being pollinated are often scarce. This is why orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very long periods and why most orchids deliver pollen in a single mass; each time pollination succeeds thousands of ovules can be fertilized.

Pollinators are often visually attracted by the shape and colours of the labellum. The flowers may produce attractive odours. Although absent in most species, nectar may be produced in a spur (8) of the labellum, on the point of the sepals or in the septa of the ovary, the most typical position amongst the Asparagales.

In orchids that produce pollinia, pollination happens as some variant of the following. When the pollinator enters into the flower, it touches a viscidium, which promptly sticks to its body, generally on the head or abdomen. While leaving the flower, it pulls the pollinium out of the anther, as it is connected to the viscidium by the caudicle or stipe. The caudicle then bends and the pollinium is moved forwards and downwards. When the pollinator enters another flower of the same species, the pollinium has taken such position that it will stick to the stigma of the second flower, just below the rostellum, pollinating it. The possessors of orchids may be able to reproduce the process with a pencil, small paintbrush, or other similar device.

Ophrys apifera is about to self-pollinate

Some orchids mainly or totally rely on self-pollination, especially in colder regions where pollinators are particularly rare. The caudicles may dry up if the flower hasn’t been visited by any pollinator and the pollina then fall directly on the stigma. Otherwise the anther may rotate and then enter the stigma cavity of the flower (as in Holcoglossum amesianum).

The labellum of the Cypripedioideae is poke-shaped and has the function to trap visiting insects. The only exit leads to the anthers that deposit pollen on the visitor.

In some extremely specialized orchids, like the Eurasian genus Ophrys, the labellum is adapted to have a colour, shape and odour which attracts male insects via mimicry of a receptive female. Pollination happens as the insect attempts to mate with flowers.

Many neotropical orchids are pollinated by male orchid bees, which visit the flowers to gather volatile chemicals they require to synthesize pheromonal attractants. Each type of orchid places the pollinia on a different body part of a different species of bee, so as to enforce proper cross-pollination.

An underground orchid in Australia, Rhizanthella slateri, never sees the light of day and depends on ants and other terrestrial insects to pollinate it.

Catasetum, a genus discussed briefly by Darwin actually launches its viscid pollinia with explosive force when an insect touches a seta, knocking the pollinator off the flower.

After pollination the sepals and petals fade and wilt, but they usually remain attached to the ovary.

Asexual reproduction

Some species, as some Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium and Vanda, produce offshoots or plantlets formed from one of the nodes along the stem, through the accumulation of growth hormones at that point. These shoots are known as keiki.

Fruits and seeds

Cross-section of an orchid capsule, the longitudinal slits

The ovary typically develops into a capsule that is dehiscent by 3 or 6 longitudinal slits, while remaining closed at both ends. The ripening of a capsule can take 2 to 18 months.

The seeds are generally almost microscopic and very numerous, in some species over a million per capsule. After ripening they blow off like dust particles or spores. They lack endosperm and must enter symbiotic relationship with various mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous fungi that provide them the necessary nutrients to germinate, so that all orchid species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and reliant upon fungi to complete their lifecycle.

As the chance for a seed to meet a fitting fungus is very small, only a minute fraction of all the seeds released grow into an adult plant. In cultivation, germination typically takes weeks, while there is a report of one paphiopedilum that took fifteen years.

Horticultural techniques have been devised for germinating seeds on a nutrient-containing gel, eliminating the requirement of the fungus for germination, greatly aiding the propagation of ornamental orchids.

The main component for the sowing of orchids in artificial conditions is the agar agar. The substance is put together with some type of carbohydrate (actually, some kind of glucose) which provides qualitative organic feed. Such substance may be banana, pineapple, peach or even tomato puree or coconut milk. After the cooking of the agar agar (it has to be cooked in sterile conditions) the mix is poured into test tubes or jars where the substance begins to jelly. The seeds have to be put in the dish above boiling water, in the steam because that secures sterile conditions. The test tubes are put diagonally after that.


A study in the scientific journal Nature [8] has hypothesized that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected. An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found trapped in Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago. The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings. This find is the first evidence of fossilised orchids to date.[8]

The extinct orchid M. caribea has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae).

This indicates that orchids may have an ancient origin and have arisen 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. In other words, they may have co-existed with dinosaurs. It shows also that at that time insects were active pollinators of orchids. According to M.W. Chase et al. (2001) the overall biogeography and phylogenetic patterns of Orchidaceae show that they are even older and may go back roughly 100 million years [9]

Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family. This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family. Since this genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70 million years).


Further information: Vanilla

Vanilla fruits drying

One orchid genus, Vanilla, is commercially important, used as a flavouring.

The underground tubers of terrestrial orchids (mainly Orchis mascula (Early Purple Orchid)) are ground to a powder and used for cooking, such as in the hot beverage salep or in the Turkish ice-cream (Dondurma – salepli dondurma). It has been claimed that the name salep comes from the Arabic expression ḥasyu al-tha`lab “fox testicles”,however, it appears more likely that the Turkish name salep comes directly from the Arabic name saḥlab‎. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being considered an aphrodisiac.

The dried leaves of Jumellea fragrans are used to flavour rum on Reunion Island.

The scent of orchids is frequently analysed by perfumists (using Gas-liquid chromatography) to identify potential fragrance chemicals.

The other important use of orchids is their cultivation for the enjoyment of the flowers. Most cultivated orchids are tropical or subtropical, but quite a few which grow in colder climates can be found on the market. Temperate species available at nurseries include Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid), Gymnadenia conopsea (Fragrant Orchid), Anacamptis pyramidalis (Pyramidal Orchid) and Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Common Spotted Orchid).

Orchids of all types have also often been sought by collectors of both species and hybrids. As such many hundreds of societies and clubs worldwide have been established. These can be small local clubs like Sutherland Shire Orchid Society or larger national organisations like American Orchid Society. Both serve to encourage cultivation and collection of orchids, but some go further by concentrating on conservation or research.

The term botanical orchid loosely denotes those small flowered tropical orchids belonging to several genera (not necessarily related to each other) that don’t fit into the “Florist” orchid category. A few of these genera contain enormous numbers of species. Some, such as Pleurothallis and Bulbophyllum, contain approximately 1700 and 2000 species, respectively, and are often extremely vegetatively diverse. The primary use of the term is among orchid hobbyists wishing to describe unusual species they grow, though it is also used to distinguish naturally occurring orchid species from horticulturally created hybrids.

A few of the most common orchids found in “casual” culture are:

The National Orchid Garden in the Singapore Botanic Gardens is considered by some to be among the finest collections of orchids in cultivation open to the public.[citation needed]

Orchids, like tulips, have become a major market throughout the world. Buyers now bid hundreds of dollars on new hybrids or improved ones. Because of their apparent ease in hybridization, they are now becoming one of the most popular cut-flowers on the market.[citation needed]


The following are amongst the most notable genera of the orchid family:


Cephalanthera longifolia, a terrestrial orchid

Leaves of different species of orchids

Habenaria radiata. Note the lip

Pterostylis coccinea, a highly specialized shape

Neuwiedia griffithii, Apostasioideae. Note the three normal stamens.

Cypripedium acaule has two stamens. One can be seen from the picture, the other is on the other side

Catasetum fimbriatum. The seta is evident.

Vanilla plant (the climber)

Cultivated Epidendrum ciliare

Listera ovata, a less showy orchid

Vanda tricolor var. suavis


Phalaenopsis hybrid

Orchids at a flower show in Tatton Park, Cheshire, England, 24 July 2008

Renanthera storei

Cattleya aclandiae. There is the typical zygomorphic flower with three petal-like sepals (top, lower right, lower left), two normal petals on either side and the labellum.

An orchid Leaf.

Orchid on display at American Orchid Society, Delray Beach

purple orchids at American Orchid Society, Delray Beach, FL

Orchid at Am. Orchid Soc Delray Bch

White Orchid Flowers.jpg

[edit] See also

Search Wikinews Wikinews has related news: American botanist Lou Jost discovers world’s smallest orchid



  1. ^ Number of orchids
  2. ^ Orchid Fact File, Royal Botanic gardens, Kew
  3. ^ “WCSP”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ Taxonomic exaggeration and its effects on orchid conservation
  5. ^ Corominas, Joan. “Breve Diccionario Etimológico de la Lengua Castellana”. Ed. Gredos, 1980. ISBN 8424913329, pp [328
  6. ^ a b “Orchid”. The Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  7. ^ Leake JR. 2005. Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the ‘saprophytic’ plant myth. Mycologist 19: 113–122. (abstract)).
  8. ^ a b Santiago R. Ramírez, Barbara Gravendeel, Rodrigo B. Singer, Charles R. Marshall & Naomi E. Pierce (30 August 2007). “Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator”. Nature 448: 1042–1042. doi:10.1038/nature06039.
  9. ^ The origin and biogeography of Orchidaceae .In Pridgeon , A.M. , Cribb, PJ ., Chase,MW, and Rasmussen , F.eds .Genera orchidacearum .Vol. 2 . pp. 1-5 Oxford University Press , Oxford


  • Arditti, J. 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. ISBN 0-471-54906-1.
  • Batygina, T. B., Bragina, E. A., and Vasilyeva, E. 2003. The reproductive system and germination in orchids. Acta Biol. Cracov. ser. Bot. 45: 21–34.
  • Berg Pana, H. 2005. Handbuch der Orchideen-Namen. Dictionary of Orchid Names. Dizionario dei nomi delle orchidee. Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Judd, Walter S., Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, Michael J. Donoghue: Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Sinauer Associates Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-87893-407-3.
  • Kreutz, C. A. J. 2004. Kompendium der Europaischen Orchideen. Catalogue of European Orchids. Kreutz Publishers, Landgraaf, Netherlands
  • Ramírez, S., et al. Nature 448, 1042–1045 (2007).
  • D. Lee Taylor and Thomas D. Bruns: Ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two nonphotosynthetic orchids; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; Vol. 94, pp. 4510–4515, April 1997 (on line).
  • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006 [and more or less continuously updated since].“Angiosperm Phylogeny Website”. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  • Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, Schimper: Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen. 4. Auflage, Gustav Fischer, Jena 1900, p. 459.

External links

Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Orchidaceae





Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski 1937, is a genus of terrestrial (ground-dwelling) plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).

The name Dactylorhiza is derived from Greek words δάκτυλος “daktylos” (finger) and ρίζα “rhiza” (root), referring to the palmately two- to five-lobed tubers of this genus. Dactylorhiza were previously classified under Orchis which has two round tubers [1].

These orchids are distributed throughout the subarctic and temperate northern hemisphere : in Europe, from Scandinavia to North Africa; also on Madeira, Iceland, West Asia, North Asia, the Himalayas, North America and even in Alaska.

These terrestrial orchids grow in basic soils in wet meadows, bogs, heathland and in areas sparsely populated by trees. They are tuberous geophytes. In a thickened underground stem, they can store a large amount of water to survive arid conditions.

The long leaves are lanceolate and, in most species, also speckled. They grow along a rather long stem which reaches a height of 70-90 cm. Leaves higher on the stem are shorter than leaves lower on the stem.

The inflorescence, compared to the length of the plant, is rather short. It consists of a compact raceme with 25-50 flowers. These develop from axillary buds. The dominant colors are all shades of pink to red, sprinkled with darker speckles.

Many ‘species’ in this genus hybridise so readily that species boundaries themselves are vague, with regular name changes and no clear answers. A few species colonise very well onto fresh industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash, where vast hybrid swarms can appear for a decade or more, before ecological succession replaces them.





There are many species that cross-fertilize, giving an immense variation and complicating classification.

  • Dactylorhiza alpestris : Alpine Dactylorhiza (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians).
  • Dactylorhiza angustata (France).
  • Dactylorhiza aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. kodiakensis : Kodiak Keyflower (Aleutian Is. to SW. Alaska).
  • Dactylorhiza armeniaca (Turkey) – has become synonym of Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza atlantica Kreutz & Vlaciha (Morocco)
  • Dactylorhiza baldshuanica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza baltica (Eastern Europe) (synonym of Dactylorhiza longifolia (Neuman) Aver.)
  • Dactylorhiza baumanniana (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza baumanniana subsp. smolikana (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Greece)
  • Dactylorhiza bohemica (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza cordigera (Fr.) Soó (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. bosniaca (N. Balkan Pen).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. cordigera (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. pindica (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (NW. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. rhodopeia Presser (Greece, Southeastern Europe, Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. siculorum (Romania to W. Ukraine).
  • Dactylorhiza ebudensis (Wief. ex R.M. Bateman & Denholm) P. Delforge : Hebridean Marsh Orchid
  • Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soó : Stately Dactylorhiza (W. Europe to NW. Africa).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. ambigua (Martrin-Donos) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. brennensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. elata (NW. Africa.
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. mauritanica B.Baumann & H. Baumann (Morocco, Algeria)
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. sesquipedalis (SW. Europe to Sicilia).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep.
    • Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza flavescens (Turkey to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza foliosa : Richly-leaved Dactylorhiza (Madeira).
  • Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó  : Common Spotted Orchid, Fuch’s Dactylorhiza (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. fuchsii (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. hebridensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. meyeri (Rchb.f.) Kulikov & E.G.Philippov
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. okellyi (Ireland, W. Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. psychrophila (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sooana (Borsos) Kreutz (Hungary)
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sudetica (Poech ex Rchb.f.) H.Baumann
  • Dactylorhiza gervasiana (Sicilia to S. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza graeca (N. Greece) – has become synonym of Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
  • Dactylorhiza graggeriana (W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza hatagirea (Pakistan to SE. Tibet).
  • Dactylorhiza iberica (Greece to Iran).
  • Dactylorhiza ilgazica (N. Turkey) – now synonym of Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz

Early Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza incarnata)

Leopard Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza praetermissa)

Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza majalis)

  • Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó  : Early Marsh Orchid
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata var. baumgartneriana (B.Baumann, H.Baumann, R.Lorenz & Ruedi Peter) P.Delforge
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta (Europe to Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. gemmana (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. incarnata (Europe to Mongolia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. krylovii (W. Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. lobelii (Norway to The Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza insularis : Island Dactylorhiza (W. Medit. to WC. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza kafiriana (NE. Afghanistan to W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza kalopissii E.Nelson (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza kulikalonica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza lapponica (Laest.ex Hartm.) Soó (N. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. angustata (Arv.-Touv.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. rhaetica H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Alps of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France)
  • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. russowii (Klinge) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (C. Europe to Siberia).
  • Dactylorhiza libanotica (Lebanon)
  • Dactylorhiza longifolia (Europe to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza macedonica (N. Greece) – now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó : Heath Spotted Orchid, Moorland Spotted Orchid (NW. Africa, Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. battandieri (N. Algeria).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. caramulensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. elodes (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. ericetorum : Heath Spotted Orchid (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. islandica (Iceland).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. kolaensis (Montell) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maculata (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maurusia (Morocco)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. podesta (Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. rhoumensis (Great Britain)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. savogiensis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. schurii (Carpathians).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. sennia (Vollmar) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. transsilvanica (SC. & SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza magna (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P.F.Hunt & Summerh.  : Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid, Western Marsh Orchid, Fan Orchid, Common Marsh Orchid (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis var. brevifolia (Rchb.f.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens (Denmark)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. cambrensis (Coastal Great Britain and Denmark) (now synonym of Dactylorhiza purpurella (T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) Soó var. cambrensis (R.H.Roberts) R.M.Bateman & Denholm 2005)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. majalis (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. occidentalis (W. & SW. Ireland, N. Great Britain) (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. parvimajalis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. purpurella : Early Marsh Orchid, Northern Marsh Orchid (NW. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. sphagnicola
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. turfosa (Alps to W. Carpathians) – has become a synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza markusii : Markus’ Dactylorhiza (N. Portugal to W. Spain and Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza nieschalkiorum (N. Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza occidentalis (Pugsley) P. Delforge : Irish Marsh Orchid (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
  • Dactylorhiza osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. anatolica (Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
  • Dactylorhiza pindica (NW. Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza praetermissa : Leopard Marsh Orchid, Southern Marsh Orchid (W. & NW. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza purpurella (T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) Soó : Northern Marsh Orchid (Great Britain, Ireland).
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. maculosa (T. Stephenson)
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. purpurella
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. cambrensis (R.H.Roberts) R.M.Bateman & Denholm 2005
  • Dactylorhiza pythagorae (E. Aegean Is.) – now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza romana : Roman Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean)
  • Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soó  : Sack-carrying Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean).
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. gervasiana (Tod.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza salina (Caucasus to Amur)
  • Dactylorhiza sambucina : Elder-flowered Orchid (Europe). Photos
  • Dactylorhiza sudetica (Europe to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri (Saut. ex Rchb.) Soó : Narrow-leaved Marsh Orchid, Traunstein’s Dactylorhiza (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. carpatica (Slovakia) – has become synonym of Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. curvifolia (N. & NE. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. wirtgenii (Höppner) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteinerioides (Pugsley)Landwehr (synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri)
  • Dactylorhiza umbrosa (W. & C. Asia to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza urvilleana (Steud.) H.Baumann & Künkele (N. & NE. Turkey to Iran)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. phoenissa B. Baumann & H. Baumann (Lebanon)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza viridis : Frog orchid (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere).
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. virescens (Temp. Asia, N. America)
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. viridis (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere)


Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana

Dactylorhiza × braunii

Note : nothosubspecies = a hybrid subspecies; nothovarietas = subvariety.

  • Dactylorhiza × abantiana (D. iberica × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × aldenii (D. iberica × D. kalopissii) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × altobracensis (D. maculata × D. sambucina) (France, Austria).
  • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana (D. incarnata × D. majalis) (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. aschersoniana (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. templinensis (D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothovar. uliginosa (D. incarnata subsp.pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × baicalica (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. salina) (Siberia).
  • Dactylorhiza × balabaniana (D. iberica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bayburtiana (D. euxina × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × beckeriana (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × boluiana (D. nieschalkiorum × D. saccifera) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bourdonii (D. brennensis × D. incarnata) (France).
  • Dactylorhiza × braunii (D. fuchsii × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. braunii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. lilacina (D fuchsii × D. majalis subsp. turfosa) (EC. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. monticola (D. fuchsii subsp. psychrophila × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. smitakii (D. fuchsii subsp. sooana × D. majalis) (EC. Europe). te
  • Dactylorhiza × breviceras (D. osmanica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × carnea (D. incarnata × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. ampolai (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. maculata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. carnea (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. maculatiformis. (D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × claudiopolitana (D. incarnata × D. schurii) (Europe.
  • Dactylorhiza × conigerum (D. maculata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × csatoi (D. cordigera × D. maculata) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza czerniakowskae (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × daunia (D. romana × D. saccifera) (S. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × delamainii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. maculata) (SW. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. occidentalis) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. dinglensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. robertsii (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. cambrensi) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. senayi (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. townsendiana (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. vermeuleniana (D. maculata × D. majalis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × drucei (D. majalis × D. viridis) (W. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × dubreuilhii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftiana (D. majalis × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftii (D. incarnata × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. dufftii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. gotlandica (D incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. traunsteineri) (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. stenkyrkae (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × erdingeri (D. sambucina × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. markowitschii (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
  • Dactylorhiza × flixensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. traunsteineri.) (Switzerland).
  • Dactylorhiza × formosa (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × fourkensis (D. baumanniana × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × gabretana (D. incarnata × D. maculata × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × genevensis (D. incarnata × D. latifolia × D. maculata) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × godferyana (D. majalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × grandis (D. fuchsii × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guilhotii (D. incarnata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guillaumeae (D. incarnata × D. sambucina) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × gustavssonii (D. iberica × D. saccifera) (Greece to Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × hallii (D maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. hallii (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. nummiana (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × hochreutinerana (D. alpestris × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × insignis (D. praetermissa × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ishorica (D. incarnata × D. longifolia) (European Russia).
  • Dactylorhiza × jenensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. traunsteineri) (W. & NC. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × jestrebiensis (D. bohemica × D. majalis) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × juennensis (D. fuchsii × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × katarana (D kalopissii × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kelleriana (D. fuchsii × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerasovinensis (D. pindica × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. kerneriorum (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. lillsundica (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca) (N. & W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. variablis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe). *Dactylorhiza × komiensis (D. hebridensis × D. maculata) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kopdagiana (D. iberica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × koutsourana (D. baumanniana × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kuuskiae (D.longifolia × D. traunsteineri) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × latirella (D. incarnata × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × lehmannii (D. incarnata × D. russowii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × megapolitana (D. fuchsii × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × metsowonensis (D. kalopissii × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × mixtum (D. fuchsii × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × mulignensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × nevskii (D. osmanica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × ornonensis (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × paridaeniana (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × pontica (D. urvilleana × D. viridis) (Turkey)
  • Dactylorhiza × prochazkana (D. bohemica × D. maculata) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × renzii (D. incarnata × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rizeana (D. euxina × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rombucina (D. romana × D. sambucina) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ruppertii (D. majalis × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × salictina (D. pindica × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × serbica (D. incarnata × D. saccifera) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × serreana (D. graeca × D. lagotis) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × sivasiana (D. umbrosa × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × sooi (D. alpestris × D. fuchsii.) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × souflikensis (D. baumanniana × D. pindica) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × stagni-novi (D. brennensis × D. fuchsii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × szaboiana (D. cordigera × D. sudetica) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × transiens (D. fuchsii × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. corylensis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. maculata)
    • Dactylorhiza × transienssubsp. ericetorum (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. transiens (Europe). Tuber geophyte
  • Dactylorhiza × turcestanicum (D. umbrosa × D. viridis) (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × vallis-peenae (D. majalis × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × venusta (D. fuchsii × D. purpurella) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. hebridella (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. purpurella) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. venusta (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × viridella (D. purpurella × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vitosana (D. saccifera × D. sambucina) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vogtiana (D. iberica × D. incarnata) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × vorasica (D. cordigera × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × weissenbachiana (D. incarnata × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × wiefelspuetziana (D. maculata × D. sphagnicola) (W. Europe).

This list follows the World checklist of monocotyledons,[2] periodically amended from the “Orchid Research Newsletter”.[3]


  1. ^ Foley, M (2005) Orchids of the British isles. Griffin press Publishing Ltd., Cherltenham, UK ISBN 0 9541916 1 7
  2. ^ World checklist of monocotyledons.
  3. ^ Orchid research Newsletter

External links

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File:Epidendrum nocturnum - 2 fl.jpg

Epidendrum nocturnum – 2 fl.jpg

Epidendrum (pronounced /ˌɛpɨˈdɛndrəm/),[1] abbreviated Epi in horticultural trade,[2] is a large neotropical genus of the orchid family. With more than 1,100 species, some authors describe it as a mega-genus. The genus name (from Greek ɛpɨ, epi and δένδρον, dendron, “upon trees”) refers to its epiphytic growth habit. When Carolus Linnaeus named this genus in 1763, he included in this genus all the epiphytic orchids known to him. Although few of these orchids are still included in the genus Epidendrum, some species of Epidendrum are nevertheless not epiphytic.




Distribution and ecology

They are native to the tropics and subtropical regions of the American continents, from South Carolina to Argentina. Their habitat is mostly epiphytic, a few are terrestrial (such as E. fulgens) or rarely lithophytic (growing on bare rock, such as E. calanthm and E. saxatile). Most are to be found in the Andes, at altitudes between 1,000 and 3,000 m. Their habitat varies from humid jungles to dry tropical forests, from sunny grassy slopes to cool cloud forests.


They are quite varied in flower size and appearance. They grow in tufts, in racemose inflorescences, sometimes in corymbs or panicles. The apical, lateral or basal flowersinflorescences are frequently dense. Many species are fragrant. The flowers may be produced only once, or during several years from the same or new inflorescences. The ellipsoid fruits are 3-ribbed capsules.
are mostly small to medium in size and frequently are not marked by a conspicuous display. The
This genus has the following characteristics :

  • a slit rostellum (small extension or little beak to the median stigma lobe), producing a transparent or white thick and adhesive liquid.
  • the sometimes fringed lip is adnate to ( = united with) the column (forming a nectary tube (but rarely producing nectar), continuing through the pedicel). The genus Prosthechea was split off because the lip is not completely adnate to the apex of the column.)
  • the pollinarium contains 4 pollinia (with sometimes 2 very reduced pollinia), rarely only 2 pollinia.
  • the erect, pendent, or creeping stems are reed-like, simple or branching, or may be pseudobulbs or thickened stems. (The genus Coilostylis, recently split off from Epidendrum, has pseudobulbs, as does Prosthechea.)


Epidendrum radicans in the wild.

Epidendrum sp. in the wild.

Initially, European taxonomists applied the generic epithet Epidendrum to all newly discovered epiphytic orchids. Gradually, many of these “Epidendrums” were recognized as being quite diverse and deserving of different generic epithets — many belong to different tribes or subtribes (e.g. Vanda). To add to the confusion, however, many descriptions of closely related species were published with different generic epithets.

As if the confusion caused by these publications were not great enough, many closely related genera (or perhaps subgenera, sections, or subsections) have been recognized and published. According to the modern rules of taxonomy, each new proposed genus that is split off from Epidendrum must bear the name of the oldest generic epithet published for a member of the new genus. Hence, many genera which have been brought into synonymy with Epidendrum have later been segregated out again. Because most of these decisions rest on the informed opinions of authorities, the segregated taxa are often then re-published as synonyms. Hence, some of the following information may seem a bit contradictory, especially if the assertion that two names are “synonyms” is misconstrued as an assertion that the two names mean exactly the same thing.

The following genera have been brought into synonymy with Epidendrum:

Genera which have been erected (or resurrected) from Epidendrum include the following examples:

  • Anacheilium (Lindl..) Withner & P.A.Harding 2004. This genus contains more than 50 species, reclassified from Prosthechea, Encyclia, and Epidendrum.
  • Barkeria
  • Dimerandra
  • Caularthron
  • Coilostylis (Raf.)Withner & Harding
  • Encyclia This is another “mega-genus” differing from Epidendrum in that the plants are mostly pseudobulbous, and in that the lip “encircles” the column, rather than being adnate. Like Epidendrum, genera have been and are likely to continue to be split off from this genus.
  • Euchile (Dressler & G.E. Pollard) C.L. Withner 1998 was elevated from a section of Encyclia with two species.
  • Hormidium Lindl. ex Heynh, described by Brieger as having the lip adnate to the proximal part of the column. Brieger placed more than 100 species in this genus. (Lindley was unsure if this was a genus, subgenus, or section.) Withner and Harding recently transferred two more species into this genus: one from Epidendrum and one from Encyclia.
  • Microepidendrum Brieger ex W.E.Higgins 2002
  • Nanodes
  • Oerstedella Rchb.f.
  • Oestlundia W.E.Higgins 2001
  • Panarica Withner & P.A.Harding 2004 contains six species, some from Prosthechea and some from Epidendrum
  • Pollardia Withner & P.A.Harding 2004 contains seventeen species, some from Prosthechea and some from Epidendrum.
  • Prosthechea This debatable genus contains the “cockleshell orchids”, with lips which are adnate to the column only about halfway to the apex, and which “encircle” the end of the column. Most of the species of this genus were long classified in Encyclia. Some species of this genus have been placed in Anacheilium (Lindl.) Withner & P.A.Harding 2004 and Panarica Withner & P.A.Harding 2004.
  • Pseudencyclia Chiron & V.P.Castro 2003
  • Psichylus


Epidendrum sensu latu is a huge genus, embracing more than 2,000 binomials (about 1,100 accepted names and the rest have become synonyms of other species). More than 1,000 have been split off into new or resurrected genera. However, it is estimated that there are more than 2,000 Epidendrum orchids, many of which still have to be discovered. More than 400 new species have lately been described by Eric Hágsater and colleagues (see: Reference).

Several botanists have been honored with an Epidendrum orchid named after them, including the following:


Only a few natural hybrids have been named, such as Epidendrum × doroteae, Epidendrum × gransabanense and Epidendrum × purpureum.
Epidendrum orchids hybridize readily with members of the genus Cattleya (Epicattleya is the accepted nothogenus for such a hybrid) and other related genera. It is not uncommon for one to come across multi-generic hybrids, for example, Adamara is the nothogenus for a hybrid containing ancestor species from each of the genera Brassavola, Cattleya, Epidendrum, and Laelia, but no others. (For several decades, the nothogenus Yamadara was used to mean Adamara.)


Although the flowers of many Epidendrum species are rather small and not very showy, many are nevertheless widely cultivated, such as E. cinnabarinum, E. ibaguense, E. nocturnum, E. radicans, E. secundum, and a multitude of hybrids of these species.

Most Epidendrum species require intermediate to warm conditions for culture, although a few of the commonly cultivated species, such as E. radicans grow in cool conditions. Some, such as E. magnoliae (syn. E. conopseum) can even tolerate extended freezing conditions. In Auckland and other sub-tropical regions of New Zealand, the cool growing plants will flower all year round. While they are normally grown in pots, it is also possible to grow them in a bark garden or on a tree.

See also

List of Epidendrum species


  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^
  1. Brieger, F. C. and Hunt, P. F. “HORMIDIUM, MAXILLARIA AND SCAPHYGLOTTIS (ORCH.)”, Taxon 18(5) pp. 601-603 (Oct. 1969)
  2. Hagsater, E., Sanchez Saldana, L., and Garcia Cruz, J. (eds.) 1999. Icones Orchidacearum: fascicle 3. The genus Epidendrum: part 2. “A second century of new species in Epidendrum”. Herbario AMO, Mexico D.F.
  3. Hagsater, E. 2001. Icones Orchidacearum: Fascicle 4. The Genus Epidendrum. Part 3, “A Third Century of New Species in Epidendrum”. Asociacion Mexicana de Orquideologia A.C., Mexico, D.F.
  4. Hágsater, E. 2004. The genus Epidendrum. Part 4. A fourth century of new species in Epidendrum. Icon. Orchid. 7: pl. 701-800.
  5. Withner, C. A., Cattleyas and Their Relatives. Brassavola, Encyclia, and Other Genera of Mexaco and Central America (5) Timber Press, 1998
  6. Withner, C. A. and Harding, P. A., Cattleyas and Their Relatives. The Debatable Epidendrums Timber Press 2004.


Wild E. magnoliae (syn. conopseum), Gadsden Co. FL.

E. radicans in the wild; Tziscao, Chiapas, Mexico.

E. secundum in the montane forest of Cusco, southeastern Peru.

External links


File:Cymbidium Clarisse Austin 'Best Pink' Flowers 2000px.JPG

Cymbidium Clarisse Austin ‘Best Pink’ Flowers 2000px.JPG

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For the brachiopod genus, see Cymbidium (brachiopod).
Boat orchids
Cymbidium Clarisse Austin ‘Best Pink cultivar’
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
Subtribe: Cyrtopodiinae
Alliance: Cymbidium
Genus: Cymbidium
Swartz, 1799
See text.(over 60 species)
  • Cyperochis Blume
  • Iridorchis Blume
  • Jensoa fRaf.
  • Pachyrhizanthe (Schltr.) Nakai

Cymbidium Clarisse ‘Best Pink’

Cymbidium dayanum

Cymbidium Hybrid

Golden Leaf-edge Orchid
(Cymbidium floribundum)

Cymbidium (pronounced /sɪmˈbɪdiəm/),[1] or boat orchids, is a genus of 52 evergreen species in the orchid family Orchidaceae. It was first described by Olof Swartz in 1799. The name is derived from the Greek word kumbos, meaning ‘hole, cavity’. It refers to the form of the base of the lip. The genus is abbreviated Cym in horticultural trade.[2]





This genus is distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia (such as northern India, China, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Borneo) and northern Australia. The larger flowered species from which the large flowered hybrids are derived grow at high altitudes [3].


Cymbidium plants are sympodial and grow to a height of 60 cm and the racemes as high as 90 cm. The raceme grows from the base of the most recent pseudobulb. Each flower can have a diameter of 5 to 10 cm, according to the species. They bloom during the winter, and each plant can have up to fifteen or more flowers. The fantastic range of colors for this genus include white, green, yellowish-green, cream, yellow, brown, pink, and red (and there may be markings of other color shades at the same time), but not blue and black. The flowers last about ten weeks. They have a waxy texture. The rounded sepals and petals have about the same dimensions. They show very diverse color patterns, different for every species.[citation needed]

Cymbidiums tend to grow more leaves than most orchids. Roughly eight long, green, narrow leaves originate from the sheath of each pseudobulb.[citation needed]

It is one of the most popular and desirable orchids in the world because of the beautiful flowers. These plants make great houseplants, and are also popular in floral arrangements and corsages. They have been cultivated for thousands of years, especially in China. Cymbidiums became popular in Europe during the Victorian era. One feature that makes the plant so popular is the fact that it can survive during cold temperatures (as low as 7˚ C or 45˚ F). Orchid hobbyists in temperate climates appreciate the fact that they can bloom in winter, when few other orchids are blooming.[citation needed]

Only a few Cymbidium species are commonly grown in nurseries, due to the popularity of hybrids. Most are to be found in botanical gardens or in their ever shrinking natural habitat.[citation needed]


  • Cymbidium aestivum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (Chinese: 夏鳳蘭) (Yunnan, China South-Central)
  • Cymbidium aliciae (Philippines)
  • Cymbidium aloifolium: Aloe-Leafed Cymbidium (Chinese: 紋瓣蘭) (Himalaya to W. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium atropurpureum (Chinese: 紫中華寒蘭) (S. Thailand, W. & C. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium bicolor: Two-Colored Cymbidium (Chinese: 硬葉蘭) (S. China to Trop. Asia)
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. bicolor (S. India, Sri Lanka) Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum (Himalaya to S. China and Indo-China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. pubescens (W. & C. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium borneense (N. & NW. Borneo)
  • Cymbidium canaliculatum: Banana Orchid, Queensland Black Orchid, Small Groove-leaf Cymbidium (Chinese: 溝唇蘭) (N. & E. Australia)
  • Cymbidium chawalongense (Chinese: 察瓦龍綠蘭) (newly discovered in Tibet)
  • Cymbidium chloranthum: Green-flowered Cymbidium (W. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium cochleare (Chinese: 垂花蘭) (E. Himalaya to Taiwan)
  • Cymbidium concinnum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (Chinese: 麗花蘭) (Yunnan, SW China)
  • Cymbidium cyperifolium (Chinese: 莎葉蘭) (Himalaya to S. China and Philippines)
    • Cymbidium cyperifolium subsp. cyperifolium (Himalaya to S. China).. Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium cyperifolium subsp. indochinense (Indo-China, Philippines). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium dayanum: Phoenix Orchid, Tree Orchid, Day’s Cymbidium (Chinese: 冬鳳蘭) (Himalaya to S. Japan and Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium defoliatum (Chinese: 落葉蘭) (China)
  • Cymbidium devonianum: Devon’s Cymbidium (Chinese: 地旺蘭) (Nepal to N. Thailand)
  • Cymbidium eburneum: Ivory-colored Cymbidium (Chinese: 獨佔春) (Himalaya to Hainan)
  • Cymbidium elongatum (NW. Borneo)
  • Cymbidium elegans (Chinese: 莎草蘭) (SW China)
  • Cymbidium ensifolium: Four Season Orchid, Golden-thread Orchid, Spring Orchid, Burned Apex Orchid, Rock Orchid (Chinese: 建蘭, 四季蘭) (Trop. & Temp. E. Asia)
    • Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. ensifolium: Mt. Tu-Wu Fall Orchid (Indo-China to Temp. E. Asia). Pseudobulb, epiphyte
    • Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. haematodes (S. India to New Guinea). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium erythraeum: Indian Cymbidium (Chinese: 長葉蘭) (Himalaya to SC. China)
  • Cymbidium erythrostylum: Red Column Cymbidium (Chinese: 紅柱蘭) (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium faberi: Multi-flower Orchid, Miscanthus Orchid (Chinese: 蕙蘭, 九華蘭) (Uttaranchal to Taiwan)
    • Cymbidium faberi var. faberi (C. & S. China, Taiwan). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium faberi var. szechuanicum (Chinese: 送春) (Uttaranchal to SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium finlaysonianum: Finlayson’s Cymbidium (Indo-China to Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium flavum (China)
  • Cymbidium floribundum: Golden Leaf-edge Orchid, Golden-edged Orchid, Yellow Margin Orchid (Chinese: 金棱邊, 多花蘭) (S. China, Taiwan).
  • Cymbidium goeringii: Spring Orchid (Chinese: 春蘭) (Himalaya to Temp. E. Asia).
    • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. goeringii : Goering’s Cymbidium (Himalaya to Temp. E. Asia). Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. goeringii var. goeringii: Chinese Spring Orchid, Japanese Spring Orchid, Korean Spring Orchid (Chinese: 江浙春蘭, 日本春蘭, 韓國春蘭) (Temp. E. Asia) Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. goeringii var. formosanum: Taiwanese Spring Orchid (Chinese: 台灣春蘭) (Taiwan) Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. goeringii var. forrestii: Yunnanese Spring Orchid (Chinese: 雲南春蘭, 朵朵香) (SW. China) Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. gracillimum : Leek Orchid, Chive Orchid (Chinese: 豆瓣綠, 豆瓣蘭, 綫葉春蘭) (Japan to S. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. longibracteatum (SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. longibracteatum var. longibracteatum Sword-leaf Spring Orchid (Chinese: 春劍) (SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. longibracteatum var. tsukengensis Mt. Tsukerg Orchid, Snow Orchid (Chinese: 雪蘭) (SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. tortisepalum : Broad-leaf Spring Orchid (Chinese: 菅草蘭) (SC. China to Taiwan) Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. tortisepalum var. tortisepalum (Chinese: 埤亞蘭) (Taiwan). Pseudobulb epiphyte
      • Cymbidium goeringii subsp. tortisepalum var. lianpan Miscanthus Orchid (Chinese: 蓮瓣蘭) (SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium gongshanense (Chinese: 貢山鳳蘭) (S. China)
  • Cymbidium hartinahianum J.B.Comber & Nasution 1977 (N. Sumatra)
  • Cymbidium hookerianum (Chinese: 虎頭蘭, 青蟬蘭) (E. Nepal to S. China).
  • Cymbidium insigne: Splendid Cymbidium (Chinese: 美花蘭) (N. Thailand to Hainan)
  • Cymbidium iridioides: Iris-like Cymbidium (Chinese: 黃蟬蘭) (Himalaya to SC. China)
  • Cymbidium kanran: Cold-growing Cymbidium (Chinese: 寒蘭) (S. China to S. Japan)
  • Cymbidium lancifolium: Green-flowered Peacock Orchid, Lance-leafed Cymbidium (Chinese: 兔耳蘭) (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia)
    • Cymbidium lancifolium var. lancifolium : Green Bamboo-leaf Orchid, Cut-grass Orchid (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia) Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium lancifolium var. papuanum (New Guinea). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium longifolium (Himalaya to SC. China)
  • Cymbidium lowianum: Low’s Cymbidium (Chinese: 碧玉蘭) (China to N. Indo-China)
    • Cymbidium lowianum var. kalawense (Myanmar). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium lowianum var. lowianum (China to N. Indo-China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium macrorhizon (Chinese: 大根蘭) (N. Pakistan to Temp. E. Asia).
  • Cymbidium madidum: Buttercup Orchid, Northern Cymbidium, Moist Forest Cymbidium (Chinese: 濕地蘭) (Queensland to N. New South Wales)
  • Cymbidium maguanense F.Y. Liu: Ivory-colored Cymbidium (Chinese: 象牙白) (Yunnan, SW China)
  • Cymbidium mastersii: Master’s Cymbidium (Chinese: 大雪蘭) (E. Himalaya to China)
  • Cymbidium micranthum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (2004) (Chinese: 細花蘭) (Yunnan, China South-Central,temperate Asia)
  • Cymbidium multiradicatum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (Chinese: 多根蘭) (Yunnan, SW China)
  • Cymbidium munronianum (E. Himalaya to Assam)
  • Cymbidium nanulum (Chinese: 珍珠矮) (China (SW. Yunnan, SW. Guizhou), Hainan)
  • Cymbidium omeiense Y.S.Wu & S.C.Chen (Chinese: 峨眉春蕙) (China, Xichuan)
  • Cymbidium parishii (S. Myanmar)
  • Cymbidium qiubeiense (Chinese: 邱北冬蕙蘭) (China)
  • Cymbidium rectum (Malaysia, N. Borneo)
  • Cymbidium roseum (W. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium sanderae: Sander’s Cymbidium (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium schroederi (C. Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium sigmoideum (W. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium sinense: Chinese Cymbidium (Chinese: 墨蘭) (Assam to Nansei-shoto)
  • Cymbidium suave: Snake Orchid (Chinese: 蛇蘭) (E. Australia)
  • Cymbidium suavissimum (Chinese: 果香蘭) (N. Myanmar)
  • Cymbidium teretipetiolatum (China)
  • Cymbidium tigrinum: Tiger-striped Cymbidium (Chinese: 斑舌蘭) (Assam to China).
  • Cymbidium tracyanum: Tracy’s Cymbidium (Chinese: 西藏虎頭蘭) (SE. Tibet to China and Indo-China)
  • Cymbidium wenshanense (Chinese: 文山紅柱蘭) (China to Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium whiteae (Sikkim)
  • Cymbidium wilsonii (Chinese: 滇南虎頭蘭) (China)

Natural Hybrids

  • Cymbidium × ballianum (Chinese: 巴氏雪蘭) (= C. eburneum × C. mastersii) (Myanmar)
  • Cymbidium × baoshanense (Chinese: 保山蘭) (= C. lowianum × C. tigrinum) (SC. Yunnan)
  • Cymbidium × chiu-lih(?) (Chinese: 秋麗蘭) (= C. lancifolium × C. ensifolium) (China)
  • Cymbidium × nishiuchianum (Chinese: 春寒蘭) (= C. goeringii × C. kanran) (Taiwan)
  • Cymbidium × nishiuchianum (Chinese: 春暉) (= C. goeringii subsp. goeringii var. formosanum × C. kanran) (Taiwan)
  • Cymbidium × florinda (= C. erythrostylum × C. iridioides. Cyperorchis × florinda) (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium × gammieanum (= C. elegans × C. erythraeum. Cyperorchis × gammieana) (Nepal to Sikkim)
  • Cymbidium × glebelandensis (= C. insigne × C. schroederi) (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium × jy-shiang(?) (Chinese: 芝香蘭) (= C. lancifolium × C. sinense) (China)
  • Cymbidium × rosefieldense (= C. hookerianum × C. tracyanum. Cyperorchis × rosefieldensis) (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium × woodlandense (= C. mastersii × C. tracyanum. Cyperorchis × woodlandensis) (Myanmar)

Asian Cymbidium

Asian Cymbidiums or Chinese Cymbidiums refer to mainly five species of cymbidiums orchids that are found throughout East Asia in areas of China, Korea, Japan, India, and in parts of Thailand and Vietnam. These species are usually grown for their variegated leaves. But plants are also grown for their fragrant flowers and peloric flower structure. Plants are usually grown in long and thin vase like pots. The five species are:

  • Cymbidium sinense 墨蘭
  • Cymbidium ensifolium 建蘭
  • Cymbidium kanran 寒蘭
  • Cymbidium goeringii 春蘭 (all the varieties like v. longibracteatum 春劍, v. lianpan 蓮瓣蘭, subsp. gracillimum 豆瓣蘭 are treated as different groups in the culture traditionally) Image
  • Cymbidium faberi 蕙蘭


Cymbidiums are susceptible to the Tobacco mosaic virus and Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus.


  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Orchid Genera and Abbreviations
  3. ^ Cribb, P and du Puy, D The Genus Cymbidium Kew Publishing ISBN978-1-84246-147-1, 2007.

[edit] External links

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Vanda is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) which, although not large (about fifty species), is one of the most important florally.

File:Wanda blau.JPG

Wanda blau.JPG


The name “Vanda” is derived from the Sanskrit name for the species Vanda tessellata.

These mostly epiphytic, but sometimes lithophytic or terrestrial orchids are distributed in India, Himalaya, SE Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, southern China and northern Australia.

The genus has a monopodial growth habit with leaves that are highly variable according to habitat. Some have flat, typically broad, ovoid leaves (strap-leaves), while others have cylindrical (terete), fleshy leaves and are adapted to dry periods. The stems of these orchids vary considerably in size; there are miniature plants and plants with a length of several meters.

There are few to many flattened flowers growing on a lateral inflorescence. Most show a yellow-brown color with brown markings, but they also appear in white, green, orange, red and burgundy shades. The lip has a small spur. Vandas usually bloom every few months and the flowers last for two to three weeks.

This genus is one of the five most horticulturally important orchid genera, because it has some of the most magnificent flowers to be found in the entire orchid family. This has contributed much to the work of hybridists producing flowers for the cut flower market. Vanda coerulea is one of the few botanical orchids with blue flowers (actually a very bluish purple), a property much appreciated for producing interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Vanda dearei is one of the chief sources of yellow color in Vanda hybrids.

Vanda Miss Joaquim is the National Flower of Singapore.

Many Vanda orchids (especially Vanda coerulea) are endangered, because of habitat destruction. The export of wild-collected specimens of the Blue Orchid (Vanda coerulea) and other wild Vandas is prohibited worldwide, as all orchids are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.


Natural hybrids

  • Vanda × boumaniae (V. insignis × V. limbata) (Lesser Sunda Is.).
  • Vanda × charlesworthii (V. bensonii × V. coerulea) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda × confusa (V. coerulescens × V. lilacina) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda × Miss Joaquim (V. hookeriana × V. teres) (Singapore).

Intergeneric hybrids

  • Aeridovanda (Aerides × Vanda)
  • Aeridovanisia (Aerides × Luisia × Vanda)
  • Alphonsoara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Andrewara (Arachnis × Renanthera × Trichoglottis × Vanda)
  • Aranda (Arachnis × Vanda)
  • Ascocenda (Ascocentrum × Vanda)
  • Ascovandoritis (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Vanda)
  • Bokchoonara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Bovornara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Burkillara (Aerides × Arachnis × Vanda)
  • Charlieara (Rhynchostylis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Christieara (Aerides × Ascocentrum × Vanda)
  • Darwinara (Ascocentrum × Neofinetia × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Debruyneara (Ascocentrum × Luisia × Vanda)
  • Devereu×ara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Eastonara (Ascocentrum × Gastrochilus × Vanda)
  • Fujiora (Ascocentrum × Trichoglottis × Vanda)
  • Goffara (Luisia × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Hawaiiara (Renanthera × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Hagerara (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Himoriara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Holttumara (Arachnis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Isaoara (Aerides × Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Joannara (Renanthera × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Kagawara (Ascocentrum × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Knappara (Ascocentrum × Rhynchostylis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Knudsonara (Ascocentrum × Neofinetia × Renanthera × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Leeara (Arachnis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Luisanda (Luisia × Vanda)
  • Luivanetia (Luisia × Neofinetia × Vanda)
  • Lewisara (Aerides × Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Vanda)
  • Maccoyara (Aerides × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Macekara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Micholitzara (Aerides × Ascocentrum × Neofinetia × Vanda)
  • Moirara (Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Mokara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Vanda)
  • Nakamotoara (Ascocentrum × Neofinetia × Vanda)
  • Nobleara (Aerides × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Okaara (Ascocentrum × Renanthera × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Onoara (Ascocentrum × Renanthera × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Opsisanda (Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Pageara (Ascocentrum × Luisia × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Pantapaara (Ascoglossum × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Paulara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Pehara (Aerides × Arachnis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Pereiraara (Aerides × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Phalaerianda (Aerides × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Raganara (Renanthera × Trichoglottis × Vanda)
  • Ramasamyara (Arachnis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Renafinanda (Neofinetia × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Renanda (Arachnis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Renantanda (Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Rhynchovanda (Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Ridleyare (Arachnis × Trichoglottis × Vanda)
  • Robinaria (Aerides × Ascocentrum × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Ronnyara (Aerides × Ascocentrum × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Sanjumeara (Aerides × Neofinetia × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Sarcovanda (Sarcochilus × Vanda)
  • Shigeuraara (Ascocentrum × Ascoglossum × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Stamariaara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Sutingara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Teohara (Arachnis × Renanthera × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Trevorara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Trichovanda (Trichoglottis × Vanda)
  • Vascostylis (Ascocentrum × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Vandachnis (Arachnis × Vandopsis)
  • Vancampe (Acampe × Vanda)
  • Vandaenopsis (Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Vandaeranthes (Aeranthes × Vanda)
  • Vandewegheara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • Vandofinetia (Neofinetia × Vanda)
  • Vandofinides (Aerides × Neofinetia × Vanda)
  • Vandoritis (Doritis × Vanda)
  • Vanglossum (Ascoglossum × Vanda)
  • Wilkinsara (Ascocentrum × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • Yapara (Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • Yusofara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • Yonezawaara (Neofinetia × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)


  • Grove, D. L. 1995. Vandas and Ascocendas. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 241 pp.
  • Motes, Martin R., and Alan L. Hoffman. 1997 Vandas, Their botany, history and culture. ISBN 0-88192-376-1

How to Write a Newspaper Article Quickly and Easily!

Filed under: Uncategorized — paper53 @ 6:50 am

How to Write a Newspaper Article Quickly and Easily!
By []Jordan Matthews

Articles in a newspaper are quick and to the point, not infused with a whole lot of personal opinion or evaluation, and tend towards the facts plain and simple as you can possibly imagine.  This style may not seem like a lot of fun to write, but it is one of the most important types of stories and writing skills that you could possibly have.  After all, newspapers employ more writers than any other writing industry, and even most companies who are not in the writing industry will look to hire people for writing newspaper articles.  So, if you’re a writer, then you need to learn how to write a newspaper article quickly.  And if you need to learn how to write newspaper article quickly, then follow this simple guide.
All good newspaper articles start off with a good headline that will entice the reader to follow up and read the whole article, so it would be remiss of me not to cover the basics in this how-to guide for writing newspaper articles.  The type of headline will likely be determined by your placement in the newspaper if you write for a physical product, so make sure to have plenty handy.  If your article is to appear on the cover, something enticing will work well, however, if you’re stuck on the inside pages, you need to stick to the facts and write a more generic title.  Your title also might need to be shortened depending on what kind of space has been allotted for your article.  For online magazines and publications, you should find a more enticing title that will tell them about the key idea of your article, but mention that it contains a “surprise” or a “secret.” These two words drive more clicks than you can possibly imagine, and work very well for driving people to your articles.
For the body of the article, you need to find some good quotes from interviews.  Nothing brings people in like quotes. It will make your article more personable and give it a human quality, plus it allows you to break the flow of facts.
There should be no more than three sentences per paragraph.  If you have more to add about a particular topic, you should revisit it after a relevant quote or at the end of the article.  Your article will be cramped into a corner and put in thin columns, so writing with short paragraphs will look more appealing and readable.  Most people forget this, and will write long and interesting paragraphs, full of information, but will wonder why so many people skip reading them.
The last thing you need to know about how to write newspaper articles is that your article should contain a picture.  Words are less powerful than a picture, and a captivating picture will make or break your readability.  Without a picture, your article looks dry and unimportant.  With a picture, you will suddenly gain notoriety and visibility.
If you follow those simple steps, then you will have learned the basics of how to write a newspaper article, and you can write a newspaper article quickly and easily.  If you want to learn how to make some money with your newspaper articles, then click here to learn how to make money with your newspaper articles.

Jordan Matthews writes for the Green-Machine, a website designed to help you make money on the internet.  If you follow those simple steps, then you will have learned the basics of how to write a newspaper article, and you can write a newspaper article quickly and easily.  If you want to learn how to make some money with your newspaper articles, then []click here to learn how to make money with your newspaper articles.

Article Source: [!&id=555083] How to Write a Newspaper Article Quickly and Easily!

If you want to know how to write a newspaper article quickly then this guide will tell you all you need to know.

Paper to CAD Conversion Explained

Filed under: Uncategorized — paper53 @ 5:19 am

Paper to CAD Conversion Explained
By []Alexander Murray

Term “Paper to CAD” within the AEC industry means the process of converting a paper drawing into CAD format. There are some very similar terms: CAD conversion, PDF to DWG, raster to vector, vectorization, paper-to-cad, and some more. “CAD” stands for Computer Aided Design. However, in the context of paper to CAD conversion the term “CAD” implies professional drafting software file formats. As for the term “paper”, it refers to a single paper drawing or a set of architectural, civil, electrical, HVAC, structural or other drawings.

Three ways of paper to CAD conversion can be used: automatic, semi-automatic, and manual. The first one is performed by scanning a paper drawing and converting it into a CAD format using raster to CAD conversion software. This approach has some drawbacks as long as not every raster to CAD conversion application can recognize text, patterns and dimension lines. As a result the CAD file can contain a mess of lines and dots instead of circles, lines, arcs and text as text separated into several layers. The second way adds manual error correction to automatic conversion. The third approach involves complete redrawing of the original drawing in a CAD application.

There are several reasons why paper to CAD conversion is needed. First, electronic drawings can be easily edited in professional software. Secondly, such drawings can be stored and searched on a local or network disk so those specialists who need a CAD document can access it much faster as comparing to working with paper drawings. In addition to this, CAD documents do not require special room for storage, they can be easily backed up, they are unlikely to be damaged in emergency, and they are not aging with time.

To sum up, conversion from paper to CAD can be useful to those   rel=nofollow []CAD companies which have a large archive of paper drawings and want to convert them into electronic format. It is recommended to use the services of CAD services providers – companies which specialize in paper to CAD conversion. Using their services a company can have its paper drawings converted at the shortest possible time and save money on purchasing CAD applications and training its specialists.

Article Source: [] Paper to CAD Conversion Explained

Term “Paper to CAD” within the AEC industry means the process of converting a paper drawing into CAD format. There are some very similar terms: CAD conversion, PDF to DWG, raster to vector, vectorization, paper-to-cad, and some more. “CAD” stands for Computer Aided Design.

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